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INDIA
Our Country

India

Links on India

World history
and India


Quotes on India 

TIMELINE

  India - The Eternal Civilization

Ours is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. More than three thousand years ago, the Indus Valley Civilization flourished in the north-western India.

The music clip that you are hearing is the national anthem of India: "Jana-Gana-Mana" authored by poet Rabindra Nath Tagore, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Today, India with a population of 1 billion, is poised to leapfrog whole stages of industrial development. The country boasts of the second largest English speaking pool of scientific manpower in the world. The biggest engine of growth is the booming InfoTech industry.

31 states, 1618 languages, 6400 castes, 6 religions, 29 major festivals but one
GREAT NATION.

Links on India

INCREDIBLE INDIA   www.incredibleindia.org
ALTA VISTA INDIA   http://in.altavista.com
CULTURE   www.indiancultureonline.com
ENTERTAINMENT   www.hungama.com
HEALTH    check4health.com
HOTELS   www.makemytrip.com
INFORMATION ON INDIA   http://www.indiatimes.com
MOVIES   www.bollywood.org 
SEARCH   www.rediff.com
RAILWAYS   www.indianrail.gov.in | www.irctc.co.in
SHOPPING   www.fabmart.com
TEMPLES   www.indiantemples.com
TRAVEL   www.tourismofindia.com | www.incredibleindia.org
    www.tourindia.com/htm/indiamapi.htm

World History Facts About India
1. India never invaded any country in her last 1000 years of history.
2. India invented the Number system. Aryabhatta invented 'zero.'
3. The world's first University was established in Takshila in 700BC.
More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60
subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was
one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
4.  Sanskrit- the thousand year old Indian language,  is the most suitable language for computer software, according to the Forbes magazine
5. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.
6. India was once the richest empire on earth. The western media portray modern images of India as poverty-stricken and underdeveloped through political corruption.
7. The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 5000 years ago. The very word "Navigation" is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.
8. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. British scholars have in 1999 officially published that Budhayan's works dates to the 6th Century, which is long before the
European mathematicians.
9. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th Century; the largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Indians used numbers as big as 1053.
10. According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds to the world.
11. USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion amongst
academics that the pioneer of wireless communication was Professor Jagadish Chandra Bose and not Marconi.
12. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.
13. Chess was invented in India.
14. Sushruta was the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like rhinoplasty, cesarean sections, cataract, fractures and urinary stones. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India.
15. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest dwellers
Indians over 5000 years ago, established the Harappan culture in the Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilisation).
16. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC.

Quotes about India

Albert Einstein:
We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.

Mark Twain:
India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grand mother of tradition.

Romain Rolland- the famrd French scholar:
If there is one place on the face of earth where all dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India.

Hu Shih - (Former Chinese ambassador to the USA):
India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.

KNOW YOUR INDIA:
Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005 estimate)
Sex ratio: 1.05 male/female at birth
Population growth rate: 1.4 % (2005 estimate)
Religions: Hindu 80.5 %, Muslim 13.4 %, Christian 2.3 %, Sikh 1.9 %, other 1.8 %, unspecified 0.1 % (2001 census)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72 %; Dravidian 25 %; Mongoloid and other 3 % (2000 estimate)
Infant mortality rate: Estimates vary from 56 to 65 deaths per 1,000 live births
Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born per female (2005 est.)
Life expectancy: Estimates place overall figure at about 64 years; male 63.57; female 65.16 (2005 estimate)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 5.1 million (2001 estimate)
Major Infectious Diseases:
Floodwater diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, typhoid fever
Vector borne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations
Animal contact disease: rabies (2004)
Languages: English is used for national, political and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other languages
Literacy: Defined as age 15+ and can read and write - total population: 59.5 %; male: 70.2 %, female: 48.3 % (2003 est.)
The Land:
Border countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Pakistan
Coastline: 7,000 kilometers (4,349.8 miles)
Climate: Tropical monsoon in south, temperate in north
Lowest point: Indian Ocean, sea level
Highest point: Kanchenjunga, 8,598 meters (26,246 feet)
Natural resources: Coal (Fourth-largest reserve in world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromites, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable lands
Land use: Arable lands 54.4 percent; permanent crops 2.74 percent; other 42.86 percent
Natural hazards: Droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoon rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
The Economy:
GDP real growth rate: 6.2 % (2004 estimate)
GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2004 est.)
Public debt: 59.7 % of GDP (federal debt only; state debt not included) (2004 est.)
Labor force: 482 million (2004 estimate)
Labor force by occupation: Agriculture 60 %; industry 17 %; services 23 %(1999 estimate)
Unemployment rate: 9.2 % (2004 estimate)
Population below poverty line: Estimates range between 25 % and 29 %
Oil production: 780,000 bbl/day (2004 estimate)
Oil consumption: 2.13 million bbl/day (2001 estimate)
Export partners: U.S. 18.4 %; China 7.8 %; UAE 6.7 %; UK 4.8 %; Hong Kong 4.3 %; Germany 4 % (2004 estimate)
Import partners: U.S. 7 %; Belgium 6.1 %; China 5.9 %; Singapore 4.8 %; Australia 4.6 %; UK 4.6 %; Germany 4.5 % (2004 estimate)
The networks:
Phone lines in use: 48.9 million (2003)
Mobile/cellular phones: 26,154,400 (2003)
Radio broadcast stations: 153 AM; 91 FM; 68 shortwave (1998)
TV broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Internet country code: .in
Internet hosts: 86,871 (2003)
Internet users: 18.5 million (2003)
The government:
Country name: Conventional long form: Republic of India, short form: India
Government type: Federal republic
Capital City: New Delhi
Administrative divisions: 28 states and 7 union territories
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution: 26 January 1950; amended many times
Legal system: Based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Military manpower: Fit for military service: males age 16-49: 219,471,999 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures: $17 billion (2004)
 

INDIA TIMELINE

Indian timeline takes us on a journey of the history of the subcontinent. Right from the ancient India, which included Bangladesh and Pakistan, to the free and divided India, this time line covers each and every aspect related to the past as well as present of the country. Read on further to explore the timeline of India:

9000 BC to
7000 BC
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
The earliest records of the Indian history exist in the form of the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka. These shelters are situated on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau, in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains. There are five groups of rock shelters, each of them adorned with paintings that are believed to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period.
 
 
7000 BC to
3300 BC
Mehrgarh Culture
Mehrgarh is one of the most significant sites belonging to the Neolithic Age. At the same time, it is one of the oldest sites that indicate the introduction of the concept of farming and herding. Situated on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan (Pakistan), it lies to the west of the Indus River valley. The site of Mehrgarh, spread over an area of 495-acre, was discovered in the year 1974
 
 
3300 BC to
1700 BC
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in the 1920s. The major events in the timeline of the Indus Valley are given below:
 
 
3300 BC to
2600 BC
Early Harappan Phase
The early Harappan Phase lasted for approximately 700 years, starting with the Ravi Phase. It is one of the three earliest urban civilizations and made use of an early form of the Indus script, known as Harappan script, for writing purposes. Around 2800 BC, the Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization started.
 
 
2600 BC to
1700 BC
Mature Harappan Phase
The Mature Harappan Phase started around 2600 BC. Large cities and urban areas started emerging and the civilization expanded to over 2,500 cities and settlements. Urban planning, excellent sewage and drainage system, system of uniform weights and measures, knowledge of proto-dentistry, etc are some of the other elements that characterize the mature phase.
 
 
1700 BC to
1300 BC
Late Harappan Phase
The Late Harappan Phase began around 1700 BC and came to an end around 1300 BC. However, one can find many elements of the Indus Valley Civilization in later cultures.
 
 
1700 BC to
500 BC
Vedic Period/Age
The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age refers to the time of the compilation of the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts in India. Situated on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Vedic Civilization formed the basis of Hinduism and the sIndian culture. The Vedic Period can be divided into the following two phases:
 
 
1700 BC to
1000 BC
Early Vedic/Rig Vedic Period
Early Vedic Period represents the time period when the Rig Veda was compiled. During this period, the king was believed to be the protector of the people, who took an active part in the government. The caste system started becoming rigid and the families started becoming patriarchal. The major events of this time are:
 
 
1700 BC - Late Harappan and Early Vedic period coincide
 
 
1300 BC - The end of Cemetery H culture
 
 
1000 BC - Iron Age of India
 
1000 BC to 500 BC Later Vedic Age
The emergence of the later Vedic period was marked with agriculture becoming the dominant economic activity and a decline in the significance of cattle rearing. The political organization changed completely, with the reduction in the involvement of people in the administration. The major events are:
 
 
600 BC - The formation of Sixteen Maha Janapadas (Great Kingdoms)
 
599 BC - the birth of Mahavira, founder of Jainism
 
563 BC - The birth of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha),
founder of Buddhism

 
551 BC Confucius the Chinese teacher and philosopher was born. Opened school at age 22.  
538 BC - Cyrus the Great conquered parts of Pakistan  
500 BC - Earliest written records in Brahmi  
500 BC - Panini standardized grammar and morphology of Sanskrit, converting it into Classical Sanskrit. With this, the Vedic Civilization came to an end.
 
 
500 BC TO
550 AD
Ancient India
Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
Jainism or Jain Dharma is the religious philosophy that originated in the Ancient India. The religion is based on the teachings of the Tirthankaras. The 24th Tirthankara, Lord Mahavira, is credited with propagating the religion in the various parts of the world. Buddhism is based on the teachings of Lord Buddha, who was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautama. After attaining Enlightenment, Lord Buddha set on a task of teaching others how to achieve nirvana. His teachings were later propagated throughout the world by Emperor Asoka. The other major events of the Ancient Indian period are:
 
     
333 BC - Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great. The Macedonian Empire was established  
326 BC - Ambhi, King of Taxila surrendered to Alexander, Battle of the Hydaspes Rive  
321 BC - Chandra Gupta Maurya established the Maurya Empire  
273 BC - Emperor Ashoka took over the Maurya Empire  
266 BC - Ashoka conquered most of South Asia, Afghanistan and Iran  
265 BC - The battle of Kalinga, after which Emperor Ashoka embraced Buddhism  
232 BC: Ashoka died and was succeeded by Dasaratha  
230 BC - Satavahana Empire was established  
200-100 BC Tholkappiyam standardized grammar and morphology of Tamil  
184 BC - Collapse of Maurya Empire with the assassination of Emperor Brihadrata, Establishment of the Sunga dynasty  
180 BC - Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom  
80 BC - Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom  
10 BC - Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom  
     
68 AD - Establishment of the Kushan Empire by Kujula Kadphises  
78 AD - Gautamiputra Satkarni took over Satavahana Empire and defeated Scythian king Vikramaditya  
240 AD - Establishment of the Gupta Empire by Sri-Gupta  
320 AD - Chandragupta I took over the Gupta Empire  
335 AD - Samudragupta took over the Gupta Empire and started expanding it  
350 AD - Establishment of the Pallava Empire  
380 AD - Chandragupta II took over the Gupta Empire  
399-414 AD  Chinese scholar Fa-Hien traveled to India  
     
550-1526 AD Medieval Period
The medieval period can be divided into the following two phases:
 
 
Up to 1300 AD Early Medieval Period
606 AD - Harshavardhana became the King
630 AD - Hiuen Tsiang traveled to India
761 AD - First Muslim invasion by Mohammed Bin Qasim
800 AD - The birth of Shankaracharya
814 AD - Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I became Rashtrakuta king
1000 AD - Invasion by Mahmud of Ghazni
1017AD - Alberuni traveled to India
1100s AD - Rule of the Chandelas, Cholas, Kadambas, and Rashrakutas
1120 AD - Kalyani Chalukya Empire attained peak, Vikramaditya VI introduced Vikrama Chalukya Era
1191 AD - First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori & Prithivi Raj Chauhan III
1192 AD - Second battle of Tarain between Ghauri and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III
1194 AD - Battle of Chandawar between Ghauri and Jayachandra
1288 AD - Marco Polo came to India
 
     
1300-1500 AD Late Medieval Period
1300 AD - Establishment of the Khilji Dynasty
1336 to 1565 AD - Vijayanagar Empire
1498 AD - First voyage of Vasco-da-Gama to Goa
 
 
1526 AD to 1818 AD) Post-Medieval Era
The major events in the post medieval era are:
1526 AD - Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, invaded Delhi and Agra and killed Sultan Ibrahim Lodi
1527 AD - Battle of Khanwa, in which Babur annexed Mewar
1530 AD - Babur died and was succeeded Humayun
1556 AD - Humayun died and was succeeded by his son Akbar
1600 AD - East India company was formed in England
1605 AD - Akbar died and was succeeded by Jehangir
1628 AD - Jehangir died and was succeeded by Shah Jahan
1630 AD - Shivaji was born
1658 AD - Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal, Jamia Masjid and Red Fort.
1659 AD - Shivaji defeated Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh
1674 AD - Maratha Empire was established
1680 AD - Shivaji died
1707 AD - Aurangzeb died and was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I
1707 AD - Maratha Empire broke into two divisions
1734 AD - Pamheiba invaded Tripura
1737 AD - Bajirao I conquered Delhi
1740 AD - Bajirao I died and was succeeded by Balaji Bajirao
1757 AD - Battle of Plassey was fought
1761 AD - Third battle of Panipat ended the expansion of Maratha Empire
1766 AD - First Anglo-Mysore War
1777 AD - First Anglo-Maratha War
1779 AD - Battle of Wadgaon
1780 AD - Second Anglo-Mysore War
1789 AD - Third Anglo-Mysore War
1798 AD - Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
1799 AD - Tipu Sultan died, Wodeyar dynasty was restored
1803 AD - Second Anglo-Maratha War
1817 AD - Third Anglo-Maratha War begins
1818 AD - End of the Maratha Empire and British control over most of India
 
     
  Colonial Era (1818 AD to 1947 AD)
The Colonial Era started with the British taking control over almost all the parts of India and ended with the freedom of India in 1947. The major events that took place during the Colonial Era are:

1829 AD - Prohibition of Sati
1857 AD - First Indian war of Independence, known as Indian Mutiny
1885 AD - Indian National Congress was formed
1930 AD - Dandi Salt March, Simon Commission, First Round Table Conference
1915 AD - Home Rule League was founded by Annie Besant

1919 AD - Massacre at Jallianwalabagh
1931 AD - Bhagat Singh was hanged by the British, Second Round Table Conference, Gandhi-Irvin Pact
1919 AD - Khilafat Movement, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre, Rowlat Act
1937 AD - Congress won power in many states, World War II broke out
1921 AD - Civil Disobedience Movement
1928 AD - Murder of Lala Lajpat Rai
1942 AD - Quit India Movement, Rise of Subhash Chandra Bose
1922 AD - Quit India Movement suspended after the Chauri-Chura violence
1946 AD - Muslim League adamant about the formation of Pakistan
1947 AD - India gained independence and witnessed partition
 
     
1947 - Free and Modern India
In 1947 August 15, India became independent and from that year onwards, started India's struggle to become one of the leading nations of the world. Today, the country is regarded as one of the fastest growing economies of the world.
 
1975 Indira Gandhi declares Emergency in India.  

 


Author's Name: Dr. Dipak R. Sarbadhikari
Contact address:
Click here
URL of pagewww.sarbadhikari.com/india.htm
Updated: 28 Sep 2010

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